1 ml of healthy male semen contains at least 15 million sperm cells, and this number can go up to 200 million. Azoospermia is a condition that occurs when there are no live sperm cells in semen.
Azoospermia, which is one of the reasons for male infertility, is defined as a lack of live sperm in semen. If pregnancy does not occur following one year of regular sexual intercourse without the use of any birth control methods,couples are accepted as infertile.
Azoospermia is one of the reasons for male infertility. Of all men with infertility problems, 10–15% have an azoospermia diagnosis. This health problem generally does not show any symptoms and is identified when couples who want infertility treatments are tested. However, there is a solution to this issue. Today, there are couples who get pregnant with the right azoospermia treatments. Azoospermia can be treated with different methods, such as surgery and medication, and these treatments might eliminate male infertility problems.
1 ml of healthy male semen contains at least 15 million sperm cells, and this number can go up to 200 million. Azoospermia is a condition that occurs when there are no live sperm cells in semen. Ejaculation after sexual intercourse has approximately 39 million sperm cells.
Men with azoospermia can ejaculate, but the number of live sperm in the semen is zero. Since this lack of sperm cannot be seen with the naked eye, it is not possible to know about this problem unless professional medical treatment is sought. Azoospermia is usually diagnosed when a couple who want to have children start infertility treatments.
Azoospermia is seen in 1 out of every 10 men with male infertility problems, and this problem is due to issues in sperm production, channel structure, or testicles. Men with azoospermia cannot have children in natural ways. However, couples have hope since this disease can be treated in various ways, and a couple can get pregnant as soon as treatment starts.
Azoospermia accounts for 10% of male infertility, and this problem might be congenital or occur later in life. Insufficient hormone levels for stimulating the testicles, testicle development problems, or blockage in testicle channels might be the reason for azoospermia, and the reasons can be divided into three groups.
In addition, there are azoospermia cases without any known reasons. Azoospermia patients who cannot be included in any group after hormonal and genetic tests are the most common.
While pretesticular and post-testicular factors can be treated more easily, the success rate of testicular treatments might be lower. Other factors that might cause azoospermia are as follows:
Azoospermia, which is one of the reasons for male infertility, often does not show any symptoms. Rare symptoms might be as follows:
These symptoms might be due to other health problems, and azoospermia diagnosis is not possible only with these symptoms. The most valid symptom of azoospermia is not having a child, despite regular unprotected sex. But this alone is not enough.
Sperm analysis must be performed to diagnose azoospermia. When there is no sperm in the semen, the patient should consult a urologist/andrologist for various tests and examinations, and treatment plans should cater specifically to that person. Almost 60% of men with azoospermia problems have treatable reasons. Advanced medical treatments for 40% of patients generally give results.
Azoospermia types are divided into two groups: obstructive azoospermia and nonobstructive azoospermia.
The most valid diagnosis method for men with a suspicion of infertility is a spermiogram, which is also known as semen analysis. Semen samples must be collected from men at two-week intervals, and the semen must have no sperm cells to yield a diagnosis of azoospermia.
After this stage, a urology examination and chromosome analysis will be applied. These examinations are necessary because 10–12% of azoospermia cases are due to structural or chromosomal problems. The root cause of the problem is identified for azoospermia treatment, and the treatment regimen is planned accordingly.
Men with azoospermia problems caused by varicocele and sperm channel obstruction due to hormonal problems have the highest chance of being successfully treated. It is possible to achieve sperm ejaculation and natural pregnancy with suitable treatments.
Treatment methods for azoospermia are determined according to the root cause of the problem. Some of these methods do not treat azoospermia but are sufficient for ensuring pregnancy. Azoospermia treatments are as follows:
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