Transmitted Diseases

Vasectomy

Vasectomy is one of the birth control methods for family planning. This method has become more common in recent years and is performed to prevent sperm discharge from the testicles to sperm tubes and sperm entrance to the urethra.

The success rate for this birth control method has low complications and risk, and it is considered a simple operation. Men who have a vasectomy do not experience negative effects on sexual performance. There will be an ejaculation, but the pregnancy rate is almost zero because there is no sperm in the semen. Among the various birth control methods, vasectomy has cost benefits. Indeed, this is the best option for all men who are not sure whether they want to have a child.

What is a Male Vasectomy? Where is it Performed?

Vasectomy is an effective birth control method; the procedure prevents sperm discharge from testicles outside the body with surgical intervention. This corresponds to tubal ligations in women. For a vasectomy, the channel called the vas deference is cut, and blockage material is inserted or tied to make it inactive. The body will continue to produce sperm, but the sperm is not discharged outside the body.

Vasectomy performed on semen tubes is an effective birth-control method for men who are not sure they want to have a child. The penis’s veins and nerves are not damaged in this procedure, so a man’s sexual life will continue normally. The semen contains the sperm from the testicles (3% of the semen) and other fluid from the prostate and other reproductive system organs.

Vasectomy operations bind the testicle tubes but do not prevent the fluid from the prostate and other reproductive organs. Thus, there will be ejaculation during sexual intercourse. This fluid does not contain sperm. Thus, the chance of pregnancy is almost zero. This procedure does not present hormonal problems.

Notably, a vasectomy does not offer protection against sexually transmitted infections.

Vasectomy Statistics in Turkey

Vasectomy is a birth control method that has spread around the world. The number of men who choose vasectomy as a birth control method is increasing every day, especially in America, Europe and China. In Turkey, women are protected in most cases. Although there is insufficient data about vasectomy procedures, the doctors expressed that this procedure is not preferred.

While the global prevalence of vasectomy is 7%, the prevalence in Turkey is around 0.1%. The most important reason for vasectomy not to be common in Turkey, despite having lower cost, tubal ligations and birth control pills, is incorrect information.

Most men in our country hesitate to have a vasectomy because they believe that the surgery will cause sexual dysfunction. However, a vasectomy does not have any negative effects on sexual performance. On the contrary, higher satisfaction can be achieved since there is birth control during sexual intercourse.

How is a Vasectomy Surgery Performed?

Before vasectomy surgery, consent is collected from the wives of married men. There are no conditions for single adult men. When the couple agrees on vasectomy surgery, the surgical technique is selected. A vasectomy can be performed with two techniques: non-surgical and conventional.

  • Nonsurgical vasectomy: The testicles are held with surgical equipment. A small incision is made, and the vas deference that carries the sperm is closed by clipping, cauterisation or tying. There is no suturing in this procedure.
  • Conventional vasectomy: Small incisions are made on the testicles. The vas deference is taken outside and tied using these incisions. The incisions are sutured with absorbable sutures.

Local anaesthesia will be sufficient for both procedures. The operation takes at most 30 minutes. It is a simple operation that can be easily performed in a clinic or hospital environment, and patients can return to their daily lives.

Full protection after a vasectomy will start approximately after 20 orgasms. Birth control must be applied in a sexual relationship before that. Otherwise, there might be an unwanted pregnancy. Sperm tests can be done to ensure protection. Bruising, pain and swelling are normal after the procedure. Patients need to rest for 24 hours, restrict exercise and avoid sexual intercourse after vasectomy surgery for faster recovery.

Vasectomy Surgery-İstanbul

Who can have a Vasectomy?

A vasectomy, as one of the most effective birth control methods, can be performed on:

  • Men above 18 years old,
  • Men who do not want to have children,
  • Men who believe they have enough children,
  • Men who must not have children due to genetic disorders,
  • Married men who receive the approval of their wives.

It is important for the men and couple to know what they want before a vasectomy, which can be considered the most effective method of birth control. When men who had a vasectomy surgery want to have children again, the tubes might be activated, but the success rate is not 100%.

Is there any Going Back From a Vasectomy?

There might be a reversal of the vasectomy if the patient changes his mind and wants to have a child. The aim of reversing a vasectomy is about opening the sperm tubes. Two methods are employed:

  • Vasovasostomy: This connects the cut ends of the vas deference. This is a challenging technique, but the chance for success is high.
  • Vasoepididymostomy: The end of the vas deference is tied to the epididymis storing the sperm. The success rate is low.

This return operation is not as easy as vasectomy surgery. This operation is performed by a specialist urologist/andrologist using microsurgery. This complicated 2-hour operation has a high cost, and the success rate is low. Additionally, there might be obstruction 6 months or 1 year after successful vasectomy return surgeries. This is the greatest risk of a vasectomy. Therefore, all these disadvantages must be considered before vasectomy surgery to avoid frustration.

Men who have had vasectomy surgery but want to have children can choose in vitro fertilization without return surgery.

What are the Advantages of a Vasectomy?

A vasectomy, the birth control method with the highest efficiency, is performed based on personal preference. There are various reasons for men’s choosing vasectomy surgery. The advantages of vasectomy surgery are as follows:

  • The procedure has almost no side effects on general body health,
  • This method has more than 99% effectiveness in preventing pregnancy,
  • It does not affect hormones,
  • It does not cause changes in sexual functioning,
  • It offers lifelong protection,
  • It is a simple operation,
  • The satisfaction rate increases if the sexual relationship is not interrupted.

Vasectomy surgery, which is a more logical birth control method than the birth control methods used by women, does not cause health threats.

Does the Vasectomy Process Cause Damage?

A vasectomy surgery that prevents sperm discharge outside the body does not involve any risk. However, a vasectomy operation is not recommended for individuals with chronic testicle pain and testicle-related diseases. Otherwise, all men who volunteer for the surgery can easily undergo a vasectomy. The possible side effects after the operation can be listed as follows:

  • Scrotum hematoma (bleeding or clot),
  • Infection,
  • Blood in semen,
  • Bruising on the scrotum,
  • Mild pain,
  • Swelling around the surgery area.

Most of these are temporary side effects. The patients will return to their normal lives in a short time. The long-term side effects after surgery are as follows:

  • Chronic pain (1%),
  • Epididymis cyst (spermatocele),
  • Inflammation due to sperm leakage (granuloma),
  • Fluid accumulation in the scrotum (hydrocele).

These problems can be eliminated with treatments recommended by specialists.

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